United Nations Commission on the Status of Women
The Republic of Tanzania exerts immaculate support for the resolutions that will counter the issues facing the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. All three topics, Promoting the Involvement of Women and Youth in Government, Combating Violence Against Women Migrant Workers, and Empowering Women and Girls in Rural Context illustrate the detrimental need for change and improvement in women’s state of being. Through dissection of these topics, Tanzania’s goals is ensure that more women and girls have greater political agency, gender-responsive, inclusive and sustainable policies and resource allocation.
- Promoting the Involvement of Women and Youth in Government
The Republic of Tanzania understands the urgency to ensure that society recognizes the value of women and how their involvement can immensely benefit government settings and country decision making. Having specific policies put in place that ensure women in government roles will help government, industries, society, institutions, leaders, and experts in making their environment congenial. Emphasis should be directed towards promoting women’s skills and abilities along with their giving nature which will facilitate their full participation in development and society in general. Tanzania has made previous efforts in regard to this topic being with the formation of organizations which aim at the development of women such as The Tanzania Women Organization (UWT), and the Ministry of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children. Tanzania also has introduced a new system of education which was geared toward the enrollment of more girls of co-educational secondary schools to reduce the disparity between the number of girls and boys in higher learning institutions. We have made progress by becoming of International Organizations dealing with women’s issues. In spite of these efforts, the situation of the majority of women is still not satisfactory. This situation is the result of many concurrent factors such as: customs and traditions that discriminate women such as genital mutilation, and lack of correct interpretation of women in development. There is a significant lack of bodies charged with responsibility of framing and issuing guidelines and following up implementation of development programs for women. There is inadequate incorporation of women’s issues in the planning process at all levels, village district, region and nation. There is a deficit of techniques to women’s participation in national development. The goals Tanzania’s policies would like to ensure is the enhancement of women’s legal capacity; economic empowerment of women and poverty eradication; women’s political empowerment in decision-making and enhancement of women’s access to education, training and employment. The supporting areas are on institutional arrangement, capacity building, gender mainstreaming and advocacy. The Government, in collaboration with NGOs, is carrying out a Gender Budget Initiative (GBI), which involves capacity building and development of gender mainstreaming tools. Gender budgeting is carried out in all ministries, regional and local authorities. The Government has issued guidelines to ministries with respect to sectoral budgets in order to make sure that budgetary processes incorporate gender concerns. The republic of Tanzania urges to provide policies that provide correct interpretation of the concept of women in development, recalling A/RES/ 37/63. Having this interpretation will assist in overcoming customs that traditional practices which militate against women. To ensure this, society must recognize and appreciate the various activities performed by women and therefore establish national plans and programs to reduce their workload. We urge for concrete gender sensitive plans with equitable distribution of resources.
- Combating Violence Against Women Migrant Workers
Many countries, especially in the African block, experience violence against women especially in rural areas. Many countries have the majority of their women experience extremely patriarchal practices; commonly whereby men control decision making positions and processes in the public, community and at family level. Traditions drive the social structure of these countries where men are the breadmakers and women tend the home and undergo child birth. With limited resources accruing out of their economic activities and burden of taking care of children women continue to live in a vicious cycle of absolute poverty. Tanzania affirms the utmost importance of the protection human rights of men and women alike before the law and within the communities and urges the international community for further support. We call upon the member nations for sustenance to already operating organizational bodies, namely, UNICEF, UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), and regional and sub-regional Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to newly establish or further advance educational opportunities for female children, in basic literacy, sexual and health education, the science and technology field, as well as legal advocacy training. In most cases, this poverty leads young women into relations to which they experience sexual, physical, emotional and psychological violence in the form of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), forced marriages, denial to education, socio-economic discrimination, social exclusion, and spouse inheritance. To change the violent environment upon which women find themselves is a process; change happen with time through sensitization and awareness creation, increased positive social interactions; and involvement of all stakeholders all over the country. The change process may also involve counseling for men and women, access of resources for women, women empowerment, and provision of justice, change in socialization process and campaigns against discriminative traditional and cultural practices. Tanzania is a signatory to the African Charter on Humans and Peoples Rights and its Optional Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, as well a signatory to the S.A.D.C. Declaration of Gender Development and the Addendum on the Prevention of Eradication of Violence Against Women and Children. The Addendum of the Declaration is a commitment to the prevention and eradication of violence against women. In efforts to implement the declaration, Tanzania established the Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance in 2001. National efforts have been taken to promote and protect the rights and welfare of women in an effort to implement A/RES/58/143 and A/RES/58/185 which safeguards gender freedom, security of life, and right to ownership of property and ensures equal distribution of resources. Tanzania will ensure that there is a coordinated U.N. policy to prevent and eliminate interagency initiatives such as the Secretary-General’s UNITE to End Violence Against Women Campaign. In terms of HIV and AIDS, Tanzania will support the Tanzania AIDS commission and strengthen the policy framework to ensure women living with HIV and AIDS can access resources and services. Tanzania proposes the following for CSW; 1) Improve access to finance for women entrepreneurs and traders through dialogue with private financial institutions, 2) Address violence against women in elections, and 3) Implement national strategies and action plans on violence against women
III. Empowering Women and Girls in Rural Context
Rural women play a critical role in the rural economies of both developed and developing countries. In most parts of the developing world they participate in crop production and livestock care, provide food, water and fuel for their families, and engage in off-farm activities to diversify their family’s livelihoods. In addition, they carry out reproductive functions in caring for children, elderly family and the sick. To understand the situation of rural women, it is necessary to examine the full diversity of their experiences in the context of the changing rural economy, including their position within household and community structures, the gender division of labor, their access to and control over resources, and their participation in decision-making. In empowering these women, it is important for the international community to recognize the feminine shadow of poverty and to ensure that women can have an equal chance in establishing a better life. In regards to this issue, Tanzania recognizes that efforts to advance women and initiatives to promote sustainable economic growth will be mutually reinforcing. Women Tanzania will collaborate with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals and the Vocational Education and Training Authority (VEDA) to economically empower women and girls in the oil and gas sector, as well as other initiatives to engage in regional initiatives on energy and the extractive industries. In this regard, the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) has allowed the channeling of additional resources to the social sectors, in addition to the economic and infrastructural ones. The social sectors include: education, water, health and cross cutting issues of HIV and AIDS, gender and environment where the feminization of poverty occurs. Moreover, efforts have been made to bridge the gender gaps to meet the Millennium Development Goals within the PRS, such as reducing the gender inequalities in the enrolment of boys and girls in schools and addressing vulnerability in terms of female headed households, taking care of the orphans, the sick, the elderly and others to meet their requirements. To enable women’s economic empowerment, Tanzania actively promotes savings and credit societies in both rural and urban areas. With the Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO) and the Tanzania Women Chambers of Commerce, informal women traders will be trained on international buyer requirements, rights and duties of exporters and importers and custom procedures. Women also benefit from the Tanzania Social Action Fund, while a Government-established women’s bank provides training and credit that complements other microfinancing and entrepreneurship programmes. Recalling A/RES/50/165, Tanzania urges to see integrating the concerns of rural women into national development policies and programmes, in particular by placing a higher priority on budgetary allocation related to the interests of rural women; and increasing the participation of rural women in the decision-making process.
General Assembly First Committee: Disarmament and International Security
The United Republic of Tanzania is committed to sustaining current cyber security policies and seeks to enrich dialogue in future developments for policy and action plans for Cyber Security and Protecting Against Cyber Warfare. Tanzania also seeks to improve frameworks and policy on Measures to Strengthen International Counter-Terrorism Efforts and provide lessons-learned for United Nations organizations and Member States, particularly those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Tanzania is dedicated to continuing efforts in Combating the Illicit Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapons and will strive to contributing knowledge from regional practices to Member States.
- Cyber Security and Protecting Against Cyber Warfare
Tanzania supports measures to bolster regional information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure and training to counteract the threat of cyber-attacks. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) identifies several challenges: Low level of security provisions sufficient to prevent and control technological and informational risks, inability to develop the necessary cyber security legal frameworks to fight cybercrime. A survey of 21 countries conducted by ECA found that while many countries had proposed legislations, the level of deployment of security systems in both the private and the public sectors to combat cyber-crime was low; 3. There is a need to build an information society that respects values, rights and freedoms and guarantees equal access to information, while encouraging the creation of authentic knowledge and that can build confidence and trust in the use of ICTs in Africa. Tanzania seeks a greater ability to identify and counter cyber threats and expand the use of strong ICT infrastructure and training. Expressing the importance of this issue, Tanzania supported similar efforts made in the United Nations (UN) document A/RES/69/28, to advance the field of IT in relations to international security, and better secure the safety of the global community. In pursuit of protections and simplified regulations Tanzania is supportive of global and innovative approaches as it relates to the timely issue of cyber security. As an integral voice of the African Union (AU), Tanzania’s policy must consider all sides of development, social and economic factors, and the growing number of global citizens whom have online access. We echo efforts to strengthen cyber security as we recognize the financial impact of unprotected systematic online access. Tanzania currently has in place a legal framework called The Cybercrimes Act that aims to define the wide-ranging nature of cybercrime and due judgement for those who commit cybercrimes within Tanzania. The International Telecommunications Union graded Tanzania on its cyber security framework ranging from ICT security to cybercrimes legislation. According to the ITU report, Tanzania is in the maturing stages of its overall cyber security policy. Tanzania will continue to seek outside help from the UN, ITU, and Member States to update its policy and cyber security infrastructure to protect its sovereignty and become a regional leader in cyber security.
- Measures to Strengthen International Counterterrorism Efforts
Tanzania acknowledges the grave threat terrorism poses to regional and global security. Having experienced a major terror attack in 1998, Tanzania is committed to identifying terror groups within its borders and across the region that would impede its continuing development. As such, Tanzania has outlined a multitude of counter-terror measures that aim to prevent attacks, protect innocent civilians, and ensure greater security for the country. In 1999, Tanzania published National Vision 2025 which has provided the path to becoming a secure and stable nation seeking to increase overall development status. Such a path is a natural target for terror groups, however Tanzania stands by its commitment to the Peace, Stability and Unity section of the document. Tanzania encourages regional Member States to abide by its simple maxim: A nation should enjoy peace, political stability, national unity and social cohesion in an environment of democracy and political and social tolerance. Although Tanzania has enjoyed national unity, peace and stability for a long time, these attributes must continue to be cultivated, nurtured and sustained. Unity should go beyond the national level and extend into the international as an effective means of countering terrorism. Tanzania has ratified and complied with United Nations resolutions as a means of practicing international unity. Nuances within definitions of terrorism mean no single definition has been agreed upon by Member States, both in terms of what terrorism is and how it should be countered. Tanzania urges Member States to put aside differences and cooperate to the fullest extent on issues regarding terrorism, as it is a prevalent threat to a multitude of regions around the world. Cooperation is one of the keys to success in stopping heinous terrorist acts; Tanzania insists on cooperation between Member States to implement the most effective measures to counter terrorist groups and acts. Root causes of terrorism must also be addressed and Tanzania implores States to create comprehensive national strategies or visions to address these issues. The will and resources should be summoned to build an effective global partnership between States and institutions, to prevent and combat terrorism and violent conflicts. Tanzania commends those Member States who have ratified the Convention for the Suppression of All Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and is committed to sustaining it. Tanzania condemns all forms of terrorism and recognizes that there must be international cooperation to counter and prevent terrorism. The AU is steadfast in our regional efforts to reach the most vulnerable areas of our continent. Practicing information sharing is an integral piece of regional and international progress and has been utilized in Africa. The African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism (ACSRT) was developed in 2002 and since has been applied to the effort to strengthen regional counter-terrorism efforts. Tanzania has nearly all United Nations counter terrorism measures and remains committed to those frameworks. Incorporating all aspects of creating stable governments is imperative to creating solutions with the Sustainable Development Goals ingrained in every endorsement by this body. Supporting technological advancements to counter-terrorism remains as stated in General Assembly Resolution A/RES/72/194 remains a top priority to coherent peace. Sharing information and developing sponsored databases for Member States to contribute to is crucial to moving forward. We emphasize the need for economic and social factors to be recognized by the international community is coming together to strengthen efforts.
III. Combating the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons
Tanzania recognizes the dangers and challenges posed by the illicit small arms trade and accepts measures to counter the trade and its negative effects on the social fabric of Member States. Tanzania is on the forefront in advocating actions against the illegal proliferation of small arms and light weapons in all its aspects as a threat to national peace and security. Member States with neighboring countries that struggle severely with this issue are likely to have adverse consequences to Tanzania as a host to myriads of refugees. After undertaking an assessment on the magnitude of Small Arms and Light Weapons problem in Tanzania, with the assistance of partners, we formulated the National Action Plan, the Focal Point Committee and the Provincial Task Forces. Components in the National Plan include institutional framework, review of legislations, stockpile management, civil society participation, capacity building and regional cooperation. The Focal Point Committee draws representatives from all stakeholders. During the same year in 2001 Tanzania broadened its efforts and expanded the cooperation with other countries at the regional level. We signed the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol in 2001 and the Nairobi Protocol in 2004 and ratified them in 2002 and 2005 respectively. The SADC Protocol is a legally binding instrument to control Firearms and Ammunition and other related materials. On its part the Nairobi Protocol is meant to prevent, control and reduce Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa. These mechanisms coordinate practical measures on regional cooperation regarding legislative measures, operational and capacity building. The mechanisms also consider arms control and tracing, collection and destruction, public awareness, record- keeping as well as distribution and information exchange. In 2003, Tanzania reviewed its Firearms and Ammunition Act of 1991 to make it comply with the UN Programme of Action and the newly signed regional protocols. It is important to recognize that the SADC Nairobi Protocol puts emphasis among other aspects, on the usefulness of having agreed standards on arms control to facilitate efforts to combat illicit arms proliferation. This idea is in line with the most recent transfer control initiative, which we strongly support and encourage other Member States and regions to favorably consider. Tanzania is in full and active support of peaceful solutions to combat illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). Our Republic recognizes that areas with economic inequality and social injustice are at higher risk for illicit trading and the harmful effects that come from weapons entering unstable areas. As a Member State of the AU, we echo their statements regarding the future of regulations and how we must form solutions in hindsight versus in retrospect. The AU is concerned that the illicit proliferation, circulation and trafficking of SALW, as a global problem closely tied to terrorism and other forms of armed violence, the worldwide drug problem, transnational organized crime, mercenary activities, the rise in social violence, promotion of corruption and other criminal behavior constitute threats to peace, development, stability and post conflict reconstruction. Member States must have an awareness that the problem of the illicit proliferation, circulation and trafficking of SALW can only be resolved holistically and in an integrated manner through improving cooperation and coordination, and by reinforcing the capacity to regulate compliance with all aspects of the problem as expressed in existing international and regional instruments. Just before the signing of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in 2003, our Republic in partnership with Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA) hosted a workshop to discuss African support for the ATT as well as provide opportunity for leaders to begin orchestrating how initiatives will be implemented. ATT is considered a landmark for combatting illegal arms trade. Since 2003 been a key legally binding aspect to ending and preventing illicit trading of SALW. Tanzania implores all existing Member States who have not ratified the ATT to do so immediately. Global ratification of the ATT should be of highest priority about achieving global peace. Our Republic would look favorably upon a re-visitation of the framework of this treaty in recent years to come in hopes that, without tarnishing the legally binding aspects, the treaty may be adapted for all Member States can ratify. Tanzania is mindful of the existence of a stronger relations between the problem of small arms and light weapons and peace, security and development in the region and has committed resources in addressing the problem because it undermines the sustainability of peace agreements, impede the success of peace building, frustrates the efforts aimed at the prevention of armed conflicts and hinders the provisions of humanitarian assistance and economic development. International cooperation and international assistance is also important. Tanzania is open to such cooperation, partnership and assistance in sustaining the implementation of the treaty and calls on other Member States to take similar action.
Position Paper for the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee
The United Republic of Tanzania firmly supports a comprehensive evaluation of the Implementation of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action, The Role of Urbanization in Sustainable Development, and Sustainable Tourism for Poverty Eradication, and expresses its confidence in this body to address these points effectively.
- Implementing the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action
The United Republic of Tanzania reaffirms its commitment to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action, and encourages all Member States to endorse the goals of these frameworks, those being the need for countries receiving aid to construct their own strategies for implementing the aid in ways that generate measurable results, with the ultimate goal of developing to the point of being self-sustaining, and being supported in this effort by donations from more developed Member States. As an original signatory of the Paris Declaration, and a Member State that receives aid for development, our republic has sought to fulfill these aims by establishing five long-term objectives in Tanzania National Vision 2025: a high quality livelihood for our citizens, including equality and Sustainable Development; peace, stability, and unity in an environment of political and social tolerance; a government accountable to the people and free of corruption; a well-educated society to foster economic growth and good leadership; and the formation of a strong economy that can develop and adapt to future changes. Detailed strategies and goals to reach these objectives are laid out in the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP), which is supported by sector strategies and policies. To facilitate more strategic resource allocation within the plan, a computerized Strategic Budget Allocation System has been adopted in all of our ministries, departments and agencies. Additionally, our government has developed a database to allow local government authorities to formulate medium-term expenditure framework plans and budgets linked to the NSGRP, and monitor their expenditure and implementation. Tanzania recommends fellow Member States receiving aid to consider forming their own national plans, if they have not already, as such plans present clear objectives for internal administration and organizations. We also suggest they create a central budget accessible by local governments, as it allows aid to be implemented effectively on multiple levels of government, making the overall result more efficient and representative of the particular needs of different areas within a nation. Our republic stresses the need for accountability by Member States receiving aid, and endorses the establishment of independent monitoring groups to periodically assess aid delivery and contribute to guiding mutual accountability. We also support the use of Development Partners Groups to assist in the transfer of aid from donors to governments in need. In our experience, doing so has benefited all parties by strengthening national ownership of development programs, aligning donor support to national priorities, and reducing transaction costs. The United Republic of Tanzania is confident in the credibility of our recommendations, and draws attention to the 2011 survey by the United Nations on the implementation of the Paris Declaration in Tanzania. Out of 13 indicators with applicable targets in 2010, only 3 had not shown significant improvement since 2005. One critical issue affecting our nation and other aid-recipients is insufficient donor coordination. Currently, donors often have different requirements and procedures for how to be eligible for and receive aid. This complicates the process and drains resources from donors and receiving nations. We call on donor Member States to improve this through capacity building programs regarding general budget support, basket funds and project modalities, and suggest this body address a way to facilitate this process. Tanzania reaffirms the importance that aid-dependent Member States reach a point of self-sufficiency, to the benefit of themselves and donor states, and declares that any progression of the Paris Declaration should contribute to this end.
- The Role of Urbanization in Sustainable Development
Our nation considers rapid, unguided urbanization as a danger to Sustainable Development. In 1961, the rate of our population living in urban areas was 4 percent. Today, it is over 30 percent. This change has brought challenges in management, resource distribution, and public health, and our republic has met them with comprehensive policy. Tanzania National Vision 2025 explicitly states a commitment to Sustainable Development, and acknowledges the importance of investing in a road network to promote rural development, promoting science and technology education, and making the economy more competitive to promote growth. Additionally, we are fully committed to carrying out the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the United Nations. Our Prime Minister’s Office of Regional Administration and Local Government (PMO-RALG) has formulated an Urban Development and Environmental Management framework that analyzes some of the issues associated with urbanization within our nation. In a case study on our largest city, Dar es Salaam, it identified transport and housing infrastructure, resource constraints, and inadequate administration as key issues affecting the sustainability of the development there. In response to these issues and others, our republic established the Urban Development Division at PMO-RALG to coordinate implementation of urban management initiatives for sustainable urbanization at the national level, and sought out partnerships with the private sector, civil societies, and national academic institutions to foster sustainable urban management. Through this, and assistance from the World Bank, we have been able to upgrade the roads, drainage canals, street lighting, community parks, and invest in low-income areas of Dar es Salaam, and our other urban areas. Tanzania suggests Member States carry out similar examinations of the development of their urban areas, to target the critical issues and produce more efficient results. Our republic affirms that a key limiting factor in the Sustainable Development of urban areas is poverty brought on by lack of access to employment or resources. This poverty can span multiple generations of families, as it is difficult to escape or improve such conditions without an additional source of assistance. Our government attempted to fill that role by carrying out a massive overhaul of the Tanzania Productive Social Safety Nets (PSSN) in 2013, and by 2015 the program was delivering cash transfers to over one million households across the country. The objective of the PSSN is to increase income and consumption and improve the ability to cope with shocks among targeted vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and poor households with children under age 5, while enhancing and protecting the human capital of their children. The program has resulted in increased school enrollment and attendance, and given vulnerable citizens the resources to improve their quality of life. We have received generous support from the United Nations for this program through a (SDG) fund joint program with the United Nations Development Programme, the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the United Nations Population Fund. The program has proven beneficial for sustainably reducing poverty in urban and rural areas alike. Tanzania recommends Member States consider similar social safety net programs, to counter the effects of poverty in general, but specifically those brought on by urbanization. To this end, we also suggest this body consider additional resources be allocated to organizations such as the ones that aided our program, so that they can assist other Member States in need. The world is over 50% urban today, and the trend of urbanization will only significantly increase in the future as nations continue to develop. Let us work together and find a solution to urban poverty now, to ensure that we urbanize in a sustainable way going forward, and promote more effective and efficient development.
III. Sustainable Tourism for Poverty Eradication
Tanzania emphasizes the importance of tourism and poverty to our nation and all Member States. The current global business volume of tourism is on par with oil exports, food products, and automobiles. Tourism plays a major role in international commerce, and is a crucial economic source for many developing countries. It accounts for 11 percent of the jobs and 17 percent of the GDP of our nation, and that number has been on the rise over the past several years. Therefore, we strongly support any efforts to improve the sustainability of tourism, and its ability to eradicate poverty through providing jobs to urban and rural populations. Our nation hosts seven United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world heritage sites, but has many more locations that fit the criteria for world heritage sites as well. Tanzania draws attention to the fact that Africa, while rich in the historical and cultural necessity of establishing world heritage sites, is significantly devoid of them. We suggest that providing UNESCO with the means to expand their roster of protected areas, especially to areas in need of development, could fulfill the aims of promoting sustainable tourism while also providing an avenue of employment to impoverished communities. Our republic also calls for increased action through the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), that has crafted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to address the issue pertaining to this topic, and also launched the Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals Program as a legacy of the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development 2017. The Program aims at advocating for the contribution of sustainable tourism to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and encouraging the full integration of tourism and the SDGs in national, regional and global agendas. It includes the future ‘Tourism and SDGs’ online platform, which is a co-creation space to inspire and empower the tourism sector to act, developed by UNWTO with the support of an Ambassadors Initiative. Tanzania suggests a method of encouraging sustainable tourism would be through the avocation for the expansion of protected lands. Over a third of our nation’s land is set aside in protected areas for conservation, among them 16 national parks, 29 game reserves, and 40 controlled conservation areas. Promoting these developments and assisting Member States in implementing them would increase the long-term sustainability of tourism and the environment in general, as well as provide direct employment opportunities through the staffing and management of these protected areas, and indirect ones through the private tourism industry. Our republic stresses the importance of establishing more comprehensive, sustainable tourism standards to shape the future growth of the sector to benefit the people and environment of the locations subject to tourism.
Position Paper for the General Assembly Third Committee
The ever-changing cultural landscapes of Member States require constant review and reevaluation to best address the humanitarian issues that the people of the world face every day. For the sake of those facing significant challenge in obtaining the security to achieve prosperity, the United Republic of Tanzania is determined to seek viable and methodical solutions to the issues of The Right of Peoples to Self-Determination, The Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance, and Ensuring Equitable Access to Education in the United Nations Assembly Third Committee through discussion, cooperation, and multilateral negotiations with fellow Member States.
I: The Right of Peoples to Self-Determination
The United Republic of Tanzania recognizes a growing need in the twenty-first century to address the autonomy of peoples within Member States facing ever-shifting economic and social factors. We acknowledge the deeply-rooted past of African States in colonization, contributing to the current understanding and will for self-determination of various peoples. Our Republic reaffirms the role of self-determination expressed by A/RES/1514 in fostering the independence of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Tanzania urges the representation of distinct groups and acknowledges semi-autonomy as a tool of unification alongside liberation to prevent potential conflict. Zanzibar, a distinct region of Tanzania, exemplifies the concept of semi-autonomy as a culturally and historically distinct island while remaining under the scope of Tanzania in the realm of international and security affairs. Bearing witness to the susceptibility of groups with the inalienable right to self-determination, Tanzania continues to exhibit support for the oppressed while maintaining respect for the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of Member States. Through the actions of entities such as the African Union (AU), Tanzania reaffirms regional cooperation and awareness of groups seeking autonomy and calls upon the consideration of Member States in defining peoples seeking the right to self-determination through regional discussion. Tanzania acknowledges the climate as a factor of self-determination and the migration of peoples and recommends preventative actions as a foremost defense against natural disasters leading to displacement. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and coastal areas present pressing vulnerability due to high-density living conditions and susceptibility to flooding. Tanzania commends efforts of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in addressing climate change as an increasing element of self-determination and urges the expansion of groups aiding refugees of climate change. Tanzania has launched internal plans in collaboration with Britain’s Department for International Development and the World Bank to identify flood-zones and stabilize unplanned developments, specifically targeting the heavily-populated city of Dar es Salaam. Tanzania advocates for the creation of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to target the needs of those seeking relocation in the event of severe climate change and seeks assistance through both the AU and fellow Member States to communicate needs during critical times. The protection of SIDS is of priority due to the extensive process of relocation for those living on islands, and Tanzania suggests the creation of specific NAPs and NAPAs regarding the self-determination of peoples inhabiting SIDs, addressing issues such as territorial boundaries, temporary shelter, and long-term recovery. Tanzania further recommends the creation of Regional Refugee Evaluation Plans (RREPs) to collect information from existing refugee camps and realize optimal access to food security, semi-permanent shelter, educational programs, and medical screening. Following the use of RREPs to establish need, Tanzania advises Member States to work alongside the UNHCR to collect data and determine outside resource allocation to support refugees expressing their right to self-determination. Our Republic implores Member States to broaden their scope of communication and assistance to peoples of nearby regions in the case of conflict, threat, or emergency and to support the peaceful expression of self-determination.
II: The Elimination of All Forms of Religious Intolerance
The United Republic of Tanzania strongly supports the use of cultural and diplomatic tools for building tolerant and responsible societies. We recall the Arusha Declaration of 1967 as an essential pathway during the formation of an independent Tanzania, promoting a peaceful and tolerant state. Tanzania urges Member States to fight religious intolerance through strengthening local, national, and regional international institutions, and by improving global governance. We recognize the root causes of religious intolerance to extend beyond faith itself and encourage dialogue between communities to bridge the gap of inequalities, preventing future conflict leading to further polarization of groups. It is essential for Member States to explore the various social and economic issues within their regions that fuel religious intolerance, leading to possible violent extremism or refugee crises. Our Republic emphasizes collaboration with communities on demographic variance and attitudes alongside cooperation with both Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) to give religious groups outlets for expression and representation. Tanzania acknowledges the influence that NGOs and FBOs have in fostering a culture of peace and has experienced first-hand the asset that is interfaith dialogue. It is critical to spread awareness of regional religious intolerance and for the international community to aid refugees of violently intolerant climates. Tanzania recalls A/RES/58/234 in honoring the victims of the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda, and strongly urges Member States to take further action to prevent such tragedies in the future. Tanzania expresses deep concern for those targeted due to faith and calls upon Member States to combat violent intolerance through governance rather than military actions, which may act to escalate and radicalize. Tanzania supports the further cooperation of the United Nations in creating conferences, such as those conducted with the Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies, to cultivate understanding on a global scale. Tanzania recommends similar forums conducted through regional mediators such as the AU to address issues of religious intolerance isolated to certain areas. Recalling A/HRC/RES/16/18, Tanzania supports youth empowerment and education as a platform to further fulfill diplomatic commitments to eradicating religious intolerance. Our Republic emphasizes empowerment through education as an essential component in the fight for more tolerant societies by the way of the youth exposure to diverse cultures and discussion of religious differences in scholarly settings. Recalling A/RES/36/55, Tanzania reaffirms commitment to creating environments in which people can exhibit or gain the ability to understand others, empathize, think critically, and exchange ideas peacefully.
III: Ensuring Equitable Access to Education
The United Republic of Tanzania recognizes the role of education in advancing global well-being and fulling the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and therefore strongly urges uninhibited support for educational programs across a multitude of platforms. Tanzania reaffirms previous commitment through the Musoma Declaration of 1974 to provide Universal Primary Education (UPE) and the Education Circular No. 5 to eliminate fees for secondary education whilst maintaining quality public schooling in Tanzania. Our Republic expresses concern with the stagnation of enrollment and retention of students and encourages further exploration in endeavors of UPE such as the Primary Education Development Program (PEDP), addressing specific goals to (1) expand school access; (2) improve education quality; and (3) increase school retention at the primary level. Strong correlations with the eradication of poverty have been traced to education and the opportunities provided through schooling, and Tanzania emphasizes the role of multilateralism to fulfill the needs of Member States held back by internal and external conflict. Refugees are of particular concern in receiving educational aid due to integration facilitated by schooling. Tanzania calls upon the Member States to renew and reinvigorate their support of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), bolstering education systems in nations on the receiving end of refugees, ensuring not only equitable, but quality schooling opportunities to citizens and refugees alike. The influx of Burundian refugees has provided significant challenge to Tanzania in providing the resources to fulfill the educational needs of those immigrating, necessitating outside aid from the UNHCR and UNICEF. Stability is a foremost factor for an equitable environment for education to occur in and is a factor meeting significant obstacles in conflict-stricken areas of Africa. Tanzania encourages modern and innovative responses, updating upon the PEDP to thoroughly harness the growth of Member States through the SDGs. Tanzania expresses concern for the low prioritization of education for girls due to challenges of attendance and recalls A/56/572 in encouraging community-based approaches to provide financial and material support for disadvantaged students. Through community-based aid, targeted efforts can be made to combat drop-out rates, specifically aiming to support girls in the transition from primary to secondary education. Tanzania encourages microcredit incentives for educational programs conducted by NGOs and individuals, allowing them the initial funding to work on programs targeting essential issues of education such as literacy. We emphasize the necessity of cooperation for locally-based governments alongside the work of organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to harmonize efforts on educational reform. Tanzania actively seeks innovative and reliable systems of schooling to provide equitable access to education globally and recognizes the potential for growth and fulfillment of SDGs through education to all.
Position Paper for the United Nations General Assembly Fifth Committee
The United Republic of Tanzania is steadfast in its commitment in forming solutions that have unanimity and that are effective in meeting the challenges that confront this United Nations General Assembly Fifth Committee. These topics are all vital for this committee to address, preeminently Improving Mechanisms for Accountability and Transparency within the UN System. With no accountability or transparency the UN losses all respect and authority in the world.
- Improving Mechanisms for Accountability and Transparency within the UN System
Tanzania recognizes the crucial need to improve systems and procedures involving the accountability and transparency of the UN in order to continue the effectiveness and moral authority the UN has around the world. To this end, whistleblower protections are key to allow transparency and discover fraud, corruption, and abuse within the UN. That is why Tanzania has passed “The Whistleblower and Witness Protection Act of 2015”. Tanzania has been dedicated to eliminating waste and corruption within our government, which have created a more efficient and reliable national government. These protections allow those who abuse power and waste government resources to be dealt with under applicable laws. Whistleblower protections are valuable to help those who see or hear of wrongdoing to feel safe to report those acts. The UN has continued to update its whistleblower protections, though they still lack sufficient protection and forms to expose wrongdoers. Especially “U.N. police officers, peacekeepers, and victims – have no protections if they report misconduct through proper U.N. channels”. Tanzania encourages member states to seek to reform protections for those who are on field missions. Critical to this is those who report must do so in good faith. Tanzania commends the 2011 “G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan Protection of Whistleblowers” which includes having good faith as a requirement to report misconduct. Without good faith those who report may do so specifically to benefit themselves. Tanzania is aware of the need to reform the Joint Inspection Unit (JIU) to make it more effective in its operations involving whistleblowers or potentially create a special task force, other than JIU or the Ethics Office, which is focused on whistleblowers and their protections. This would allow for a more concise and effective organ to help whistleblowers even those who are just contracted by the UN. The Secretary Generals bulletin (ST/SGB/2017/2) is a welcomed step especially with protection from retaliation. Protection must also be available for those who don’t identify a specific retaliation act. A renewed movement to reform current laws and institutions while also possibly creating new ones are needed to create an accountable UN. The United Republic of Tanzania and others recognize the need for reforms to be made, especially to the UN Security Council. The Security Council is at the front of all major binding decisions made by the UN. The job of these members, especially permanent members, is to act on our behalf. Which is something that time and again has not occurred, but rather whatever suits those permanent member states internal politics is what is prioritized. The Permanent Members (P5) were established based on those who were victorious during World War Two. That is no longer an accurate representation to what states currently have the most impact on world affairs. This current system of the P5 also ignores regions that have been colonized and neglected from developed powers. Tanzania and 27 other member states have come together to reform the Accountability, Coherence and Transparency of the UN Security Council known as (ACT). As the flagship for the UN it is alarming to Tanzania that almost half of all meeting are behind closed doors. This does not allow for transparency to be achieved when only a small group of member states, five having vetoes, are deciding actions and obtaining critical information, while keeping the majority of the UN in the dark. The veto has been overused and is detrimental to the UN’s overall reputability on issues that are appalling in nature. ACT has called for a voluntary suspension of veto power on cases of atrocities including genocide, war crimes or crimes against humanity. Tanzania with the rest of ACT, supports having better quality meetings with member states that are Troup/Police Contributing Countries (TCC/PCC). This is necessary for those who contribute to the TCC and PCC to be respected and involved with actions that consist of their forces. Other than being a member of ACT to help with creating a more transparent and accountable UN. Tanzania has also strived for the same things with our own government. Tanzania has started an open data portal which has brought information that can be accessed by the public and reviewed.
- Strengthening Compliance and Accountability in Field Missions with Special Regard to Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Cases
Tanzania is adamantly against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of any type or form. Peacekeepers that go on field missions are in constant contact with the civilian populace and represent the UN around the world. As a top contributor of peacekeeping forces to the UN Tanzania is horrified by the allegations of Tanzanian troops committing the heinous crime of sexual abuse and exploitation. Our government has immediately began investigations into the allegations and will punish those who committed the crimes to the fullest extent of the law, upholding the zero tolerance policy set forth by the Secretary General. Tanzania supports speedy, fair, and transparent investigation in cases of sexual abuse. To help prevent sexual abuse during field missions, Tanzania emphasizes that the Conduct and Discipline Teams (CDTs) should have more direct oversight of forces. The CDTs should be making an increased effort to have peacekeepers supervised by some superior officer when in contact with the civilian population at great lengths of time. The current UN online sexual abuse training for peacekeepers is insufficient and should be improved. Tanzania endorses the training of those who are superiors on field missions to go through special training directly by the UN on how to handle and prevent sexual abuse. At the same time also having member states that provide troops to improve their training in preventing sexual abuse autonomously from the UN. The United Republic of Tanzania takes sexual abuse cases very seriously, especially with children. That is why in cooperation with a Multi-Sector Task Force the Tanzanian Violence Against Children Survey (TVACS) has been created. Tanzania is the first African country to carry out a comprehensive study of physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children. Under our own intuitive this survey was established in order to protect our young people and understand the effects of sexual abuse and exploitation. Tanzania reaffirms its support for (A/71/818), a report by the Secretary General, which takes a new approach at using special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and abuse. The Secretary General speaks to increased and more efficient reporting methods. This is especially important in many of the peacekeeping regions, as many of them are in rural areas and have not many ways to report other than to the people that abused them. The need for an open and strong system to protect the victims and others that report abuse is crucial. Tanzania supports Security Council Resolution 2272 which brings more effective and strong punishments to member states that do not punish those who committed sexual abuse. If a member state doesn’t hold those perpetrators accountable all military and police forces will be replaced at the cost of the member state, also those in the chain of command will be held responsible. This gives a message of no tolerance policy with sexual abuse. Tanzania understands the gravity of sexual abuse of children in particular as our own nation deals with the issue. It is a very traumatic experience for those who suffer from sexual abuse. Tanzania is helping combat pictures and videos of sexually abused children on the internet which is vital to our and other states’ safe internet growth. To help levitate this issue Tanzania has opened a portal that directs to Internet Watch Foundation (IWF). This organization allows users to report images or videos that they view that might be abuse. The traumatic experiences victims endure should not be viewed by anyone. Tanzania encourages other member states to open similar portals or through other means.
III. Consideration of the Secretary-General’s Reform Proposals
Tanzania is exceedingly pleased with UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres and his proposals on reforms for the UN. The call from the Secretary-General to focus on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is wanted by many in order to see substantial progress toward these goals. The 2030 Agenda is beginning to be implementation in many developing nations that are being strained by the cost in order to implement the Agenda. In line with the Secretary General, Tanzania approves of his call for member states that struggle in establishing this Agenda to not be left behind. Tanzania calls on increased funding to developing states that toil in reaching the goals of the Agenda. This would allow those who find it tough with obtaining the goals of the 2030 Agenda to continue to advance while also doing what each state has the ability to achieve. The Secretary-General speaks on intensifying focus on the Financing for Development (FfD). The (FfD) is useful for developing nations such as ours to help follow the mandate established by (A/RES/60/188) to enable member states to implement their commitments. Tanzania is encouraging other member states to approve of the Secretary-Generals want to focus further more on the (FfD) for the greater good of the body. The staff and funding for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is condensed into only three of the goals, while receiving approximately 50% of all resources within the SDG. While goals two, three, and sixteen are important, Tanzania recommends that a system to more equally spread of funds and staff is necessary to reach the 2030 Agenda. Gender Equality is one of these goals that is lacking in commitment by other member states to properly tackle. As the entire UN and each member state advances toward these goals the involvement of women is vital for success. Tanzania calls upon all member states to allow women to have equal opportunity in the workplace and in their rights as citizens by updating or eliminating laws and ideas that relegate women to a lower position in society. That is why Tanzania has had an increase in women in our parliament as they continue to have a bigger say in our country’s growth. The Secretary-General briefly speaks to the Paris Agreement and its importance to have a clear road map to achieving what was set forth in Paris. Tanzania was one of the first states to submit our Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to show our plan and ability to lower greenhouse gas emission with adaptation and mitigation. The results of glaciers melting and greenhouse gases emissions to continue, would have a devastating impact on the world and Tanzania. That is why Tanzania expresses its hope for all member states to commit to the Paris Agreement. Those who are further ahead in reaching these goals should help developing states to reach their goals as well. All states need to work together in order to protect our planet.
Position Paper for the International Organization for Migration
The United Republic of Tanzania is eager to address the increasingly urgent matters relating to global migration. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs estimated in 2017 that 258 million people are currently living in a State other than their Member State of birth, an increase of 49% since 2000. The issue of unmitigated and increasing migration has the potential to impact the UN’s Sustainable Development goals and adversely impact the economic and political climates of neighboring Member States. For these reasons, Tanzania looks forward to addressing the topics before the International Organization for Migration: Addressing Climate Migration and Cross-Border Disaster Displacement, Addressing the Issue of Migration in Libya, and Strengthening Cooperation between IOM and Civil Society.
Topic A: Addressing Climate Migration and Cross-Border Disaster Displacement
There is substantial evidence that the climate has been changing in recent decades and this trend will not only persist but will also intensify in near future. According to recent estimates, this unprecedented climate variability will first occur in the tropics and among Member States with low economic standing. The projected mean climate may continuously move outside the bounds of historical variability already in 2034, about 17 years earlier than the global average. Through their implications for agricultural production, these changes will exert additional pressure on the populations in developing Member States, both because majority of the poor rely on rain-fed agriculture and because the share of food in the budget of the poor may amount to two-thirds. Therefore, climate change and climate variability should be perceived as an important source of risk for rural households in developing Member States. In Tanzania, studies have confirmed that climate shocks lead to a higher probability of migration by reducing agricultural yields, which in turn induces households to send their members away in order to spatially diversify their income. Agriculture accounts for about half of gross production and employs about 80 % of the labor force. Agriculture in Tanzania is also primarily rain-fed, with only 2 % of arable land having irrigation facilities. In a recent study, it has been predicted that by 2050, the projected seasonal temperature increases by 2 ̊ C in Tanzania will reduce average maize, sorghum, and rice yields by 13%, 8.8%, and 7.6% respectively. This poses a grave threat to the economic stability of Tanzania. This problem is observable throughout Africa and around the world. There is also the related matter of climate disasters. If unmitigated climate change continues to occur, we will see a dramatic rise in the number of climate caused famines and droughts. These will further decimate areas dependent on agriculture and will act as a catalyst to regional instability. This change will also spur migration in areas that aren’t traditionally associated with climate related migration. Flooding, Hurricanes, Typhoons, and rising sea levels have and will continue to become more powerful. Tanzania is steadfast in its efforts to fight climate change. The challenge of climate change mitigation requires the commitment and participation of all Member States. Under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Republic of Tanzania has and will continue to provide sustained support. Tanzania will do its part, by improving the energy availability to reduce deforestation, improve energy diversification and efficiency of her major energy consuming sectors, including, power generation, manufacturing, and transportation. Tanzania encourages other members, especially those in Africa to adopt similar positions. Tanzania feels strongly that the international community needs to prepare for even higher levels of migration, especially since it will become worse before it gets better. Tanzania wishes to see member states work towards a plan of action to address legal gaps related to cross-border disaster-displacement, gaps in operational response to protection of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the context of disaster and addressing the impact of climate change on existing caseload of persons already displaced for other reasons. By taking proactive steps to plan for the worst, the International Organization for Migration can be prepared for the future.
Topic B: Addressing the Issue of Migration in Libya
The migration crisis in Libya is the most urgent issue before the International Organization for Migration. The human rights situation in Libya is dire, with evidence of widespread human and sex trafficking. The most recent statistics place the count of registered migrants at more than 400,000 in Libya, with the total number of migrants in the nation are estimated to be more than one million. Given the geographical and political conditions in Libya, it has become the largest transit point for migrants trying to reach Europe or the Middle East. The international community has taken some concrete steps to address the crisis, but the International Organization for Migration and partner agencies have a long way to go to create real change in Libya. Tanzania takes its commitment to the plight of refugees seriously. Tanzania has created a robust strategy to assist migrants and develop efficiency in deploying resources. Tanzania currently shelters just under 200,000 migrants and is expanding its ability to house more. Tanzania has been working closely in a partnership with the United Kingdom. Tanzania recently announced that the United Kingdom will provide support for over 460,000 refugees and migrants to reside in Tanzania to meet emergency needs and identify ways for people to find work, so that they can stay where they are and either return home or not be forced to migrate elsewhere. Many of the refugees targeted by this program will be from Libya or in transit to Libya. This effort can be translated and replicated by other African nations to reduce the stream of migrants risking their lives to travel to Europe. Tanzania feels that funding additional internal relocations can assist in reducing the strain the influx is having on existing infrastructure. Tanzania also believes that some steps can be taken on the ground to better address the crisis. Tanzania calls on the international community to reduce its dependence on detention centers as a means of sheltering migrants and take a proactive approach to encourage alternative forms of management. Tanzania also seeks a larger emphasis on data gathering and migrant pathway tracking. These efforts along with the broader stabilization strategies in progress across United Nations agencies have the potential to create headway in the Libyan migration crisis.
Topic C: Strengthening Cooperation between IOM and Civil Society
The International Organization for Migration is reliant on strong multilateral bonds with civil society to achieve its mission statement. The International Organization for Migration Constitution specifies that the IOM shall closely cooperate in carrying out its functions with non-governmental organizations, concerned with migration, refugees and human resources. These relationships provide crucial support to the International Organization for Migration’s policy and operational capacities in areas of migration for the benefit of all. Civil society organizations (CSO) often have strong ties to the communities in which they work, an aspect which complements and enhances the impact of International Organization for Migration efforts in the field of migration. Where CSOs are national or local in nature, IOM-CSO cooperation can contribute to the local ownership and sustainability of International Organization for Migration programming. Partnerships between IOM and CSOs have been successfully operating for many years and have been strengthened by the implementation of yearly consultations, but current migration trends and challenges necessitate further strengthening of these partnerships. Tanzania acknowledges the agenda consideration of Migration in United Nations bodies such as the General Assembly and urges high level conversation and action. Recalling General Assembly resolution 72/244, Tanzania welcomes the intergovernmental cooperation and adoption of the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. In 2008, the African Capacity-building Centre in the United Republic of Tanzania was established by the International Organization for Migration to promote international understanding of migrants and migration issues; promote sound migration management in Africa; develop, institutionalize and deliver on-site and offsite training programmes; and build the migration management capacity of African States. A major component of the Capacity-building Centre is outreach to CSO’s and Tanzania believes that an expansion of the outreach efforts by existing regional centers and the development of additional centers can foster an increased coordination between the International Organization for Migration and the local CSO’s on the ground. These growth efforts should also focus on outreach efforts in the major destinations of Migrant traffic. Tanzania feels that CSOs can play a larger role in Member States such as Italy and Germany in coordinating data collection and providing tactical support on the receiving end of migrant flows. There has been immense progress made in the past few years in increasing cooperation and coordination; our Republic urges Member States to build on this progress. Partnerships have been put to the test with the ongoing migrant crisis in Africa and yet it is clear to everyone involved that the best course of action is to build upon the progress made and capitalize on this momentum. Tanzania looks forward to building on the successes made and feels that the future is bright for the International Organization for Migration and its Civil Society organization partners. Tanzania is interested in exploring further, with partners, innovative approaches that complement and strengthen the efforts of Governments to ensure safe and orderly labor migration and the protection of the human and labor rights of migrants, including ethical recruitment practices. A key challenge to maximizing the benefits of labor mobility was the need to lower recruitment costs, and combat abusive and exploitative practices, such as charging excessive fees. Tanzania is interested in exploring further, with partners, innovative approaches that complement and strengthen the efforts of Governments to ensure safe and orderly labor migration and the protection of the human and labor rights of migrants, including ethical recruitment practices. The issue of remittances is important to Tanzania, and as such, will continue to work with the African Union states to consider innovative results-based mechanisms to further reduce the cost of transferring remittances to developing countries. Tanzania urges the need to deepen the interaction between Governments and civil society to find responses to the challenges and the opportunities posed by international migration, and recognize the contribution of civil society, including non-governmental organizations, to promote the well-being of migrants and their integration into societies, especially at times of extreme vulnerable conditions, and the support of the international community to the efforts of such organizations. It is with these actions taken upon that the gruesome effects of migration will be challenged and corrected.
Position Paper for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
The United Republic of Tanzania wishes to welcome all Member States of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is ambitious in assisting in efforts to assist in development. Through diligence and perseverance, Tanzania forges toward the future world it wishes to see, despite those among us that would wish to continue to profit from the inhumanity that flourishes when assistance to those that cannot help themselves is withheld. The commitment to the Millennium Development Goals and through the understanding and hedging of results formed by Promoting Digital Citizenship among Youth, Using International Telecommunications (ICT) to Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, and Advancing Human Rights and Development through Artificial Intelligence.
- Promoting Digital Citizenship among Youth.
The United Republic of Tanzania in the past had a monopoly on Telecommunications. Until February 2005, when the Republic of Tanzania ceased this and approved private companies to build fiber cable networks through government regulations. The Republic of Tanzania recognizes the high import tariff on telecom equipment and taxes on phone facilities are making this task more difficult to overcome. More progress was made on January 29, 2010, the Republic of Tanzania passed the Electronic and Postal Communications Act. This Act requires telecom firms to list their shares on Dar Stock Exchange. This Act will make it possible for individuals to see what companies are succeeding and which companies on the market that may not be a good investment. Recorded from the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, the overall mobile subscriber grew from approximately half a million people in 2010 to 1.3 million people in the year 2013. This was a seventeen percent increase from fifty percent of the population to sixty seven percent of the population. Recently Tanzania’s communications sector showed strong growth in 2014, with the growing use of mobile banking as well. Although while online banking is growing recently, still only seventeen percent of the population is involved with Tanzania’s banking system. The Republic of Tanzania citizens mainly are using mobile SIM for types of communication, while only thirty nine percent of the Nation has access and uses the internet. Allowing telecommunications and the internet to the boys and girls of Tanzania will lead to stronger gender Equality as well. Still to this day around half the world lacks the internet, the Republic of Tanzania calls for the construction of more fiber optic cables. There are already two cables connected to the Republic of Tanzania, one of which connects Tanzania and the island Zanzibar. The major obstacle is to install the Cables and set up internet services affordably, along with have affordable resources online. For the Republic of Tanzania to be able to obtain its goals of greater connectivity and information, we must bring down the costs of the telecommunications fees, and equipment. The company Nokia recently began manufacturing and producing a smartphone aimed at developing nations. Tanzania who has a recently stronger communications structure could use this to improve and spread digital connection among the youth. A large part of Sub-Saharan Africa lives only on one dollar and twenty-five cents a day, so government regulation might be necessary.
- Using International Telecommunications (ICT) to Promote Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.
The Republic of Tanzania recognizes there is a problem of gender inequality in Tanzania along with many other nations in the world. The women and girls of Tanzania remain the most marginalized and underappreciated citizens in sub-Saharan Africa. For developing nations to become more developed, it is vital to promote gender equality along with empowering the women of the nation and culture. If not around half or maybe over half of nations populations are not being productive which hampers the process of the nation. The Republic of Tanzania is also concerned with the health of the youth along with Tanzanian women. Tanzania recently is having better economic structure and for girls and women to be more productive they must be able to learn. This means women would need better access to resources and education. The Republic of Tanzania having better access to education would help empower women and girls, boost the economy, possibly reduce poverty and bring more development for the nation. To empower the women of Tanzania, we call for equal opportunities for men and women. Whether that be applying for a loan, for a job, even in education. In the year 2015 the USAID and department of state approved and created the “Let Girls Learn” fund. This was a 25-million-dollar investment to have stakeholders design and run a new program in Tanzania, to help build education. Another major problem for the girls and women the Republic of Tanzania is gender violence. A student named, Nelson Holmes created “Together to End Violence Against Women” (TEVAW). This was due to the alarming high rate of violence against women. A 2010, survey reported that 52% of participants found it acceptable for a husband to hit their wife. Although something even more saddening is that in the Republic of Tanzania 58% of women find it acceptable for men to beat their wives. The Republic of Tanzania recognizes the work done by TEVAW, offering Education savings and lending groups. These groups provide training of certain skills from business, health and nutrition, literacy, intimate partner violence, child protection and HIV protection. The groups have formed workshops in Tanzania to help men that abuse their wives see gender equality and social “norms”. The Republic of Tanzania along with TEVAW realize that men can play different roles in family and the community. Institutional inequalities, lack of equal opportunity and control of resources is linked to gender violence. Microfinance could play a big role in gender equality along with the development of the Republic of Tanzania. Microfinance has been proven to work in past events, but only if it is done correctly. If women can receive loans for business and have the knowledge, this would lead to a more competitive market. Women being able to own their own land, in a way shifting the gender-based norms that are dangerous and unfair to the women of Tanzania.
III. Advancing Human Rights and Development through Artificial Intelligence.
The Republic of Tanzania is in the middle of the process of development. While attempting to build the economic structure of Tanzania and digital communications, artificial intelligence could be helpful. The Republic of Tanzania recognizes the globalization of the world and its affairs. Many conflicts have lead to global terrorism, with the breaking if international human rights. Even more intertwined conflicts or problems of the world include population growth, population movement, climate change, and water scarcity etc. Tanzania also wants to add there will always be an opening for conflict to start up. A large part of ceasing conflict along with, disasters, and crises is prevention. The United Nations and it member states realise that with the innovation of artificial intelligence, there can be a future with less international conflicts. The United Nations secretary general Antonio Guterres stated “Artificial Intelligence has the potential to accelerate progress towards a dignified life, in peace and prosperity, for all people.” Guterres also agrees that the developing countries around the world could benefit exponentially from artificial intelligence, although they are being left behind in the era of technology. Again, due to the high price on the equipment and installation. The impact of artificial intelligence has been massive for almost every industry in the world, so this will affect the Republic of Tanzania and call for them to adapt as well. AI is able to learn at such a vast rate that no human could learn. The Republic of Tanzania notices industrialized countries have invested in their own Artificial intelligence industry. Tanzania calls for a legislation that would invest in an Artificial intelligence industry, and inevitably help industrialize Tanzania and put them with the developed world. Tanzania encourages all Member States to promote favorable conditions for trade and investment by exploring more efficient, coherent and consistent macroeconomic strategies built on mobilizing domestic resources, while working to eliminate harmful financial support and unproductive spending. The inclusion, coordination and engagement of the private sector are essential to achieving partnerships for development because private companies can legitimately transfer expertise in technology and management from developed to developing countries. Strengthening of international institutions is elemental in this regard, so that the focus for all partners is on establishing social and economic justice for all human beings before national interests or the exploitation of human and environmental resources
Position Paper for the United Nations Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
The United Republic of Tanzania recognizes the importance of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in counter-terrorism efforts, the ability to provide protection and assistance to victims of chemical weapons, and the complete eradication of chemical weapons. Since Tanzania’s ratification into the OPCW, our Republic has continually shown our efforts to comply by the OPCW guidelines. Tanzania reaffirms its belief in the need of the eradication of chemical weapons. Our ratification into the OPCW in 1998 shows our commitment to a world without chemical weapons.
- The Complete Eradication of Chemical Weapons
The United Republic of Tanzania calls for the total, complete, and irreversible disarmament of all Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) to ensure peace, security, and prosperity. Complete disarmament requires Member States to address their political and strategic ambitions to bridge gaps between nations and establish harmony between them. Tanzania seeks further advancement into human development spurred by competition after the Second World War, promoting the values of cooperation and scientific innovation rather than destruction. By establishing unified standards, the United Nations (UN) body has created treaties such as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), in which chemical weapons are defined as “toxic chemicals and their precursors, except where intended for purposes not prohibited under this Convention” and “munitions and devices, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through the toxic properties of those toxic chemicals.” Tanzania recognizes these standards defined by the UN body and urges the body to mindfully develop solutions. Tanzania urges Member States to completely eradicate these chemical weapons by addressing the illicit trade of chemicals that make up these weapons. Tanzania expresses deep concern for Schedule 1 chemicals in circulation due to their tendency to be used in chemical warfare. Schedule 1 chemicals, chemicals which can either be used as chemical weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of chemical weapons and which have no, or very limited, uses outside of chemical warfare, are heavily monitored by the OPCW. Tanzania recommends further engagement by OPCW in the regulation on the trade of chemicals and additional transportation security by establishing additional information sharing. While there has been a substantial decrease in the use of chemical weapons, there are still Member States within the OPCW that continue to store chemical weapons. Tanzania emphasizes the need for destruction of chemical weapons by Member States. Recalling S/RES/1540, all WMDs are banned and their means of delivery. Tanzania remains convinced that through the determination of the international community, based on pragmatic and realistic multilateralism, it is possible to find solutions to the proliferation crises. Reaffirming the decision in EC-M-XII/DEC.1, Tanzania urges States Parties to adopt national legislative and administrative measures to implement the provisions on transfers of all scheduled chemicals. New policy should protect States from transfers of chemicals to non-state actors as well as States that are not members to this Convention. Tanzania emphasizes that is not only possessor States which bear the responsibility of implementing the convention. The threat posed by chemical weapons’ proliferation affects all Member States. The danger must be taken seriously ensuring all States possess legislation that allows full and effective implementation of this convention. It is necessary that states COOPERATE in all aspects, to include both regional and international forums to improve relations and to create stability in the world. All nations, both states party to the Chemical Weapons Convention and non-member states must enhance ACCOUNTABILITY measures of chemical materials, stockpiles, and facilities through National Implementation Measures, as well under the guidelines of Articles IV, V, and VI of the Chemical Weapons Convention. For the protection of all citizens and nations, the TRANSPARENCY of production, transaction, transitions, and transportation of scheduled chemical materials is necessary to ensure all parties are abiding by the regulations set forth in the Chemical Weapons Convention. Last of all, working towards STABILITY in all regions of the world will further trust, peace, and cooperation between the global communities, thus rendering the necessity for weapons of mass destruction void.
- Providing Protection and Assistance to Victims of Chemical Weapons
Tanzania affirms its support for the adoption of decision C-16/DEC.13. The support network for victims of chemical weapons is vital in helping those victims to gain assistance after exposure. Tanzania welcomes the trust fund established in C-16/DEC.13 in its goal to establish contacts, with international, regional, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Recalling C-I/DEC.53 in which an OPCW data bank was created, Tanzania further encourages the creation of regional databanks to include information on civilian protection and victim rehabilitation programs by introduced Member States. A regional databank relevant to the victims of chemical weapons and information specific to the attack will allow Member State to better track weapons being used. Additionally, regional databank’s can allow the OPCW to investigate quickly and efficiently if all Member States support information sharing. States parties may contribute to the Voluntary Fund for Assistance that In accordance with Paragraph 7 of Article X, established for use in the event that a State Party is attacked with chemical weapons. A number of States Parties have chosen this measure, but the amount thus far contributed falls well short of the amount of funding that would be needed to mount an adequate response to a large-scale attack. Tanzania calls upon Member States to continue to contribute capital to the fund and those who have the ability to increase their contributions to the fund. The OPCW must be properly funded to deal with a full scale attack. Tanzania welcomes the commitment of Switzerland who has offered to provide equipment for assistance efforts, as well as to train relevant personnel from other States Parties in its use. Tanzania expresses its hope for other Member States to offer similar assistance in terms of equipment and the training of personal to better protect and assist effectively in a time of crisis. States parties have the right to conduct research into, develop, produce, acquire, transfer and use means of protection against chemical weapons. States Parties may transfer to other States Parties limited amounts of Schedule 1 chemicals for research and pharmaceutical purposes, and protection against chemical weapons. To ensure the security of all States Parties, it is crucial that outside support is available to those that need it if ever they are threatened with chemical weapons. Tanzania encourages the transfer of Schedule 1 chemicals for the purpose of protection. States must work together to ensure the protection of all States against chemicals. Acknowledging the expiration of the Joint Investigative Mechanism’s (JIM) mandate in 2017, Tanzania recommends the renewal and possible reconstruction of JIM to have an expanded purview and to better reflect the cooperative role of the body. Tanzania recommends JIM further investigate state or state actors whom are strongly thought to have chemical weapons following correct procedure for such investigations. Working directly with medical relief NGOs, such as Doctors Without Borders, Member States can provide the correct relief to victims of chemical attacks and further help distribute protective equipment and other types of aid. Tanzania encourages regional training centers with workshops to assist Member States through training and logistical support need to be established to further assist victims of chemical weapons.
III. The Role of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in Counter-Terrorism Efforts
The lack of action by the UN in helping those attacked by the Syrian regime is deeply disturbing to Tanzania. We call upon OPCW member nations to make protective and collective equipment as well as regional training facilities or programs for chemical attacks more readily available in areas of increased tensions with the risk of chemical attack. This would be from Member States directly providing supplies or financial help of NGOs that provide assistance from chemical weapons attacks. The Syrian population and their neighbors are already aware of the Syrian regime’s acts in violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and need more protection and care for those in danger. States near North Korea and at risk of chemical should be prepared to limit casualties in the case of an attack with additional equipment and training. Tanzania notes with disappointment the Security Council’s failing to adopt resolution condemning the Syrian chemical attack, in which OPCW recommended. Tanzania considers unified condemnation for all users of chemical weapons, in particular when targeting civilians, is paramount in the consideration of international security and unity. Tanzania reaffirms the General assembly’s adoption of resolution 71/69 in regards to the implementation of the convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles is a method in which helps lower hostility in areas of escalated tensions and in States with great sway of international actions. Tanzania recognizes the danger from non-state actors obtaining weapons of mass destruction and welcomes the UN Security council’s adoption of S/RES/2325. Tanzania remains deeply concerned by the possibility of non-state actors obtaining chemical weapons, as seen by the terrorist Islamic State’s use of mustard gas in 2016. In prevention of such attacks, we believe States must have an overview of chemicals and their uses in the State to keep non-state parties from enacting tragedies among the international community. Acknowledging the Interagency Coordination in the Event of a Terrorist Attack Using Chemical or Biological Weapons, which highlights the importance of Member States working together to combat terrorism, Tanzania calls for an increase in the use of the Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) through the United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism. The benefit of the CTITF is the ability for Member States to request assistance through the organization to identify and remedy vulnerabilities that may allow non-state actors to acquire, create or utilize chemical weapons. Noting with significance the coordination and success of the CWC in cooperation with The African Union (AU) since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between OPCW and the African Union Commission (AUC). Tanzania echoes the statements of AUC Chairperson Konaré when they stated that cooperation with the OPCW is important for the AU in achieving peace and security on the continent, as well as contributing towards the fulfilment of the AU’s goal of establishing a chemical weapons-free zone in Africa. In order to strengthen organization with the OPCW, Member States must seek regional multilateral and bilateral connections. Renewal of agreements must be considered with emphasis in the area of eradicating chemical weapons as a means of countering terrorism. As more information is made available, Member States must act with urgency in order to prevent attacks, prepare for investigation, and ultimately halt the use of chemical weapons entirely.
Position Paper for United Nations Environmental Assembly
The topics addressed in the United Nations Environmental Assembly (UNEA) are comprised of: Conservation and Restoration of Ecosystems in Urban Areas; Empowering Youth for Sustainable Development; and The Impact of Pollution on Marine Life. The United Republic of Tanzania has made tremendous strides in reaching these goals and greatly anticipates achieving further progress with Member States in the upcoming conference.
- Conservation and Restoration of Ecosystems in Urban Areas
Among the many human activities that cause the degradation of ecosystems, urban development produces extreme local extinction rates and frequently eliminates many native species. It is often more lasting than other types of habitat loss. While urban development can fragment larger habitat regions, urban areas commonly contain key natural spaces and features that offer significant benefits to fish and wildlife. The role of urban ecosystems in fish and wildlife conservation has become increasingly recognized in recent decades, with many landscape features that increase livability for people while also playing an important role in sustaining native wildlife populations. Multiple mechanisms link ecosystem services to human well-being. Tanzania hosts a variety of ecosystems including aquatic and terrestrial, many of which are transboundary such as the Lake Tanganyika ecosystem, which is shared between four Member States, or common transboundary migratory species. The services and resources provided by these ecosystems directly and indirectly support the livelihoods of the human population and much of the state’s economy. A global lens must be used about policy creation and advocating as it relates to conservation and restoration.
The Constitution of the Republic of Tanzania was amended in 1984 to incorporate the Bill of Rights, with Article 9 of the Constitution requiring the Tanzanian Government to ensure that national resources are harnessed, preserved and applied toward the common good. This Article portrays the commitment of the Tanzanian Government to safeguard Sustainable Development and conservation. Additionally, the National Environmental Policy enacted in 1997 provided a framework for making fundamental changes needed to bring environmental considerations into mainstream decision making. Tanzania prioritizes policy guidelines, plans and guidance for monitoring and annual revisions of policies, plans, and programmes, recalling General Assembly resolution 71/256 (2016) that was adopted without a vote; displaying Member States affirmation in the severity of pressure on ecosystems in urban areas. The overall objectives of the National Environmental Policy are, therefore, to ensure sustainable and equitable use of resources without degrading the environment or risking health or safety; to prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation, and air which constitute the essential life support systems; to conserve and enhance natural and man-made heritage, including the biological diversity of the unique ecosystems of Tanzania; to improve the condition and productivity of degraded areas including rural and urban settlements to ensure that all Tanzanian citizens may live in safe, productive and aesthetically pleasing surroundings; to raise public awareness; to promote individual and community participation; and to encourage international cooperation.
- Empowering Youth for Sustainable Development
Seventy percent of Tanzania’s population are between the ages of 15 and 35. This is the age when people are laying the foundations for their future, building careers and planning families, but far too many young adults in the United Republic of Tanzania experience daunting challenges to achieve these legitimate objectives. Youth unemployment in Tanzania varies in average between 13 percent and 14 percent; and here women are primarily affected. Furthermore, many young men and women who are employed still often find themselves among the ranks of the working poor. Like many Member States, Tanzania is challenged with the task of harnessing the potential of its youth population and accelerate its development in a way that would provide opportunities for their substantive contribution towards poverty alleviation, sustainable development and a peaceful and healthy nation. With the support of The African Union (AU), Tanzania is in active pursuit of programmes to empower youth recognizing the social, political, and economical benefits that occur by doing so. Noting the importance of the ‘Final Declaration: Investing in Youth for Accelerated Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development’ stated by the African Union. The declaration outlines the necessity of providing youth and women with educational and workplace opportunity. Additionally, in line with the sentiments of the AU, Tanzania supports the active role of youth and women in prevention, management and mediation of conflicts, in alignment with the AU and United Nations (UN) agendas as it directly relates to Sustainable Development Goals: 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Tanzania further recalls General Assembly resolution 70/299 (2016) and its passing by consensus; Member States are in agreement of the need to invest time and resources into Sustainable Development in all avenues applicable. Tanzania’s youth are making strides to generate solutions for the unemployment problem by creating jobs through entrepreneurship. The United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) youth-related work encourages youth employment and volunteerism, programmes aimed at increasing young people’s participation and voice, support to the development of youth policies, and the promotion of social cohesion, cross-cultural communication and a culture of non-violence among youth. In 2016, a symposium on youth and development organized by UNDP Tanzania in partnership with the University of Dar es Salaam, the Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania and United Nations Volunteers was attended by more than 500 young men and women drawn from a number of universities and colleges. The symposium provided a forum for presentations and discussions on empowering the youth to contribute to and influence the long-term development agenda set for Tanzania. The event also attracted representatives from the Tanzanian Government, civil society organizations and the private sector, representing diverse interests.
The UNDP has expressed its support to the government of Tanzania in scaling up the empowerment of its youth in response to the current social and economic dynamics encountered by the Member State. To assist in the government’s response efforts, UNDP along with other UN agencies and development partners stated they were prepared to apply their experience and expertise to the worldwide phenomenon of young men and women calling for meaningful participation in the development agenda. UNDP’s Youth Strategy recognizes the complex developmental challenges youth face and offers concrete recommendations on how these can be addressed in partnership with governments and non-governmental actors, in a way that gives the youth themselves a voice. The drive towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is clear in its ambition to leave no one behind. The international community has demonstrated its dedication to Africa with the ratification of the Millennium Goals, General Assemble Resolutions A/RES/60/201, A/RES/59/310, and A/RES/59/255, and in the development of The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), as well as the direct development assistance from the G8 to ensure that NEPAD can accomplish its objectives. Tanzania is committed to sharing its resources to implement NEPAD’s Comprehensive Sustainable Development Programme (CSDP) in Western Africa that directly impacts youth. To progress CAADP, Tanzania has shared resources, such as irrigated land and technology related to rice production, and is able to meet the food requirements for Africa. In addition to participating in NEPAD and CADP, Tanzania is a committed partner in the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), in the agreement that African state should appropriate ten percent of each nation’s perspective budget to agriculture and technology,
III. The Impact of Pollution on Marine Life
There is substantial evidence that the oceans have suffered at the hands of mankind for millennia, but recent studies show that degradation, particularly of shoreline areas, has accelerated dramatically in the past three centuries as industrial discharge and runoff from farms and coastal cities has increased. Man-made pollutants such as pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, detergents, oil, sewage, plastics and other solids collect at the ocean’s depths, where they are consumed by small marine organisms and introduced into the global food chain. In the United Republic of Tanzania, water for ecosystems has the highest priority after basic human needs. The coastal area of Tanzania encompasses a number of habitats that include coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, sandbanks, wetlands and beaches. In addition to being essential linkages in the overall functioning of the coastal area, these coastal habitats support various resources both living and non-living. Furthermore, for generations the coastal area has provided life support to local communities where such activities as fisheries and related endeavors have played an important role in the social and economic development. The well-being of these habitats and resources and the various activities taking place within or near coastal waters depend, to a large extent, on good water quality. The Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership (TCMP) established the Science and Technical Working Group (STWG) in July 1999. TCMP is a joint initiative between the Government of Tanzania, the National Environmental Management Council, the United States Agency for International Development and the Coastal Resources Center of the University of Rhode Island. The main goal of TCMP is to establish the foundation for effective coastal management in Tanzania. TCMP is committed to working with the existing network of Integrated Coastal Management programme and practitioners to facilitate a participatory transparent process that unites the Tanzanian Government and the community, science and management, and sectoral and public interests with a primary goal of conservation and development of coastal ecosystems and resource. STWG intends to provide the primary bridge between coastal managers and the scientific communities studying coastal marine issues at the local and national level, while providing a clearinghouse mechanism for the integration of science and better coastal management. Tanzania recognizes General Assembly resolution 71/257 (2016); aligning with Member States commitment to preserve and protect marine life. Tanzania developed a nationwide approach to pollution on marine life with the pilot project launched in the Mafia Island Marine Park in 2015. Through the Strategic Adaptive Management Programme (SAM), managers work closely with agency staff, local communities and scientists to determine what “healthy” Marine Protected Areas (MPA) look like and assess whether these areas are providing benefits to wildlife and humans. Managers monitor the coral reefs, seagrass beds and beaches within MPAs, if changes occur or threats appear management actions are taken and afterwards the impact of the actions are measured to conclude if their actions are successful. Thus, SAM increases MPA management effectiveness by building capacity, helping agencies and supporting managers in assessing what actions they need to take. Through the process of mentoring, SAM creates MPA accountability and increases staff passion and confidence in the quest for conservation excellence.
Position Paper for the World Health Organization
The United Republic of Tanzania supports the utilization of the 17 sustainable development goals in order the achieve a more healthy and enriched society. The Ministry of Health is particularly, important in a country like ours where resources and technology are more limited than in other countries. Through the application of the SDGs we will assist in further bringing recognition to the issues of Mitigating the Health Impacts of Pollution, Improving Responses and Coordination in Addressing Mental Health, and Vaccination to Promote global Public Health.
- Mitigating the Health Impacts of Pollution
The United Republic of Tanzania strives to create a more sustainable society by reducing the amount of solid waste in urban areas through solid waste management services. Environmental health is an important area for promotive and preventive health. It is one of the best indicators for measuring social and economic developments which can be achieved by, among other things) enhanced environmental cleanliness, monitoring of water quality and safety, monitoring of food quality and safety of locally produced foods and imported foods at ports of entry, manufacturing, packaging and sales outlets. In some regions, this solid waste is being used to fuel factories ergo weakening the ongoing problem of solid waste pollution. In response to the issue of solid waste pollution, we have implemented a ban on the manufacture and distribution of plastic bags that exceed a certain thickness. This ban slows down the spread of certain fatal diseases such as Cholera and Malaria due to the unblockage of septic systems that harbor these diseases. Blocked septic systems and the buildup of raw sewage is massively attractive to mosquitos and other carriers of Malaria. In Tanzania the outbreak of Malaria is one of the biggest problems we are facing. Annually, an estimated 7.3 million citizens are hospitalized due to Malaria and we face over 23,000 deaths. To combat this problem, we have become one of the 24 focus countries that are partaking in the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI). The PMI aims to reduce the number of deaths caused by Malaria by at least 50 percent. Currently the initiative has saved around 6.8 million lives in Africa from 2001 to 2015. In Tanzania specifically, from 2004 to 2010 we have gone from 112 deaths per 1000 births to only 81, dropping the under-five mortality rate by 28%. The people of Tanzania suffer most from acute febrile illness caused by malaria. The groups most vulnerable to malaria are young children and pregnant women. Malaria is also the leading cause of death of all age groups for hospitalized patients. It is the leading cause of admissions and death in children under five years and above. The Government is committed to reduce the burden of disease due to Malaria. To address the problem, the Ministry of Health will apply four strategic approaches: Improved malaria case management, use of Insecticide Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs), control of malaria in pregnancy, Malaria epidemics prevention and control. All these strategies will be complemented by IEC on control and prevention of Malaria. ITNs play a huge role in achieving these goals. Currently there have been over 5 million ITNs that have been distributed to citizens in both Zanzibar and the mainland. This distribution of ITNs has made a monumental contribution to the reduced number of Malaria cases in Tanzania as the number of lives saved continues to grow. In the last decade, Tanzania has recorded remarkable progress in scaling-up proven interventions, these include Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets, rapid diagnosis and treatment, and use of Malaria risk maps for targeted interventions and as a result there is a decline in all key parameters: prevalence, incidence and deaths from 2004 to 2014. Tanzania urges member states to consider. Moreover on lessening the impacts of solid waste, the CDM project on Landfill Gas Methane Recovery and Electricity Generation, at Mtoni Dump site, Dar Es Salaam, is committed to the plan of flaring solid waste and using the biogas to produce electricity and slowly move away from the harsh impacts of fossil fuels. This project will also lessen greenhouse gas emissions by flaring methane contained in the biogas extracted from the dump site.
- Improving Responses and Coordination in Addressing Mental Health
Mental health in Tanzania, while important, does not compare to the magnitude of more serious physical health problems we face such as Cholera, Malaria, and the spread of HIV/AIDS. The spread of HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death in Tanzania killing over 73 thousand in 2012, whereas deaths by suicide brought on by mental illness are not even on the list of leading causes of death. The presence of epidemics, endemic, emerging and re-emerging diseases and pandemics such as HIV/AIDS in the country, call for more interventions in health education/promotion and advocacy. Moreover, the need for advocacy to stakeholders and community on new developments and changes in the Health Sector in order to solicit support, create demand, increase knowledge and understanding about services and rights of individual and communities, is of paramount importance. While mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression may be considered serious issues, they are not as serious as ensuring the physical health of citizens in Tanzania. Even though illnesses such as depression and anxiety are affecting some in Tanzania, we do not see it as an issue to put significant effort into. Only 5.6% of our annual GDP is spent on health services and 2.4% of that is spent on mental health services such as hiring psychiatrists to diagnose and treat patients with mental illnesses as well as building mental hospitals for the more severe cases. Out of our population of 55 million, there are only about 1000 trained and licensed psychiatrists. However, we do have workers taking action to deal with the issue of mental health. Tanzanian parliament nominee James Mbatia conducted a study to inform the public of depression by having health workers fill out a Depression Attitude Questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed health workers and their knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences, and treatment of depression. While the results showed that most health workers believed there was a sudden spike in depression, mental health in Tanzania is still is not considered as important as physical health. To prevent occurrence of mental diseases, we will provide appropriate treatment for the diseases conditions, educate health workers on how to manage these disease conditions, to educate the public on ways to protect themselves from these illnesses, and how to manage them if they appear. Mental health in Tanzania is considered a non-communicable disease and the Government will continue to do research in this area, enhance control of the non-communicable diseases and improve the management of the increasing workload of patients with these conditions. This will include increasingly important areas of mental health and substance abuse. The National Essential Health Package includes a strategy to manage noncommunicable diseases. As the population pyramid changes with more citizens living longer than before special measures will be elaborated to care for the health of the elderly. Health education/promotion and Advocacy is a multi-sectoral issue, which needs cooperation, networking and coalition with all interested stakeholders. The Ministry of Health, through Zonal Training Centres, will assist the regions and districts to provide effective, participatory and culture specific health education, health promotion and advocacy to the community at large regarding health issues.
III. Vaccination to Promote Global Public Health
Good health is an important element required for national development. To achieve this, the Government of Tanzania has since emphasized on delivery of equitable and quality preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health services at all levels. In view of this the Ministry of Health will, through the Regional Secretariat, continue to support and facilitate implementation at council level of preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative health services. The Ministry will introduce new vaccines against other vaccine preventable diseases of public health importance from time to time as the need may arise, to ensure that the lives of the children and community at large is well protected. We will also continue to support special health services and events organized internationally and nationally. In Tanzania, the spread of diseases such as Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Typhoid, Rabies, and Yellow Fever are all combated by required vaccinations to gain entry into the country. Rabies is responsible for around 1500 deaths in Tanzania annually. Reaffirming the need for accessible vaccinations, the rabies elimination demonstration project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) has currently reduced the number of deaths by rabies in Tanzania by 75%. This project focuses primarily on canines and provides vaccinations for 70% of the canine population. Deeply disturbed by the harsh health impacts of Malaria, there is unfortunately no commercially available vaccination for the disease at this time. However, there is one vaccine in the clinical trial stages that is showing tremendous promise in passing through the clinical stages and becoming available globally. The United Republic of Tanzania is in full support of finding a vaccination for Malaria as soon as possible. The Ministry of Health shall ensure the provision of continuous, sufficient potent vaccines, supplies, vaccination equipment and maintenance of the cold chain. Special efforts will be geared towards areas with low coverage and support mobile and outreach services for underprivileged and hard to reach areas. The Ministry of Health will continue to sensitize mothers, communities and leaders at all levels about the importance of immunization and solicit their active support. In this regard, the National Poverty Reduction Strategy indicators will be used. The Ministry shall ensure the provision of continuous, sufficient potent vaccines, supplies, vaccination equipment and maintenance of the cold chain. Special efforts will be geared towards areas with low coverage and support mobile and outreach services for underprivileged and hard to reach areas. The Ministry of Health will continue to sensitize mothers, communities and leaders at all levels about the importance of immunization and solicit their active support. In this regard, the National Poverty Reduction Strategy indicators will be used.